Time and Date in Bahasa Indonesia






Talking about time
Sometimes, we have  question about time in Indonesian, and In answer to the question “Kapan? When?” we can provide information of various kinds, as follows:


Telling the time
Jam berapa? What time is it? Jam means “o’clock”, and berapa means “how much?” To give an answer,
we repeat jam and add a number:


Jam satu          one o’clock
Jam dua           two o’clock
Jam tiga           three o’clock, and so on

Then to indicate time past the hour, we use the word lewat “past”, followed by the number of minutes
(menit), thus:


Jam dua lewat sepuluh                        ten past two
Jam enam lewat dua puluh      twenty past six

A quarter past is expressed with lewat seperempat, e.g.



Jam lima lewat seperempat      a quarter past five

Half past the hour needs special attention, as it is different from English (but like Dutch). We do not
say “half past” but “half to the next hour”, thus:


Jam setengah delapan                          half past seven


For a quarter to the hour, we say the hour “less a quarter”, e.g.


Jam tujuh kurang seperempat                         a quarter to seven


For extra clarity, we can add words to indicate what period of the day it is:

Pagi                             morning
Siang                           the middle of the day
sore                              the late afternoon
malam                         night, e.g.
jam sebelas malam       eleven o’clock at night

Note that in a formal context, for example on radio or TV, we will hear pukul instead of jam. And in
airline and other timetables we will also find the twenty-four hour clock being used, e.g.


pukul delapan belas tiga puluh                                    18.30


The days of the week


Hari apa? What day of the week is it? Answer:

hari Minggu                 Sunday (or, more formally, hari Ahad; not to be confused with minggu“week”)
hari Senin                    Monday
hari Selasa                   Tuesday
hari Rabu                    Wednesday
hari Kamis                   Thursday
hari Jumat                   Friday
hari Sabtu                    Saturday

Note that it is usual to repeat the word hari (day) here, as also in special days, such as Hari Ibu
(Mother’s Day, 22 December), or Hari Ulang Tahun (HUT) the birthday or anniversary of something.


The months of the year
Bulan apa? What month is it? Answer:


bulan Januari                          January
bulan Februari                        February
bulan Maret                             March
bulan April                              April
bulan Mei                                May (N.B. pronounce like “May”)
bulan Juni                               June
bulan Juli                                July
bulan Agustus                          August (Note the spelling)
bulan September                      September
bulan Oktober                         October
bulan November                      November
bulan Desember                       December



Dates
Tanggai berapa?          What date is it? Answer:



Hari ini tanggai sepuluh Mei               Today is 10 May (“the tenth of May”)
Tanggai tujuh belas Agustus                17 August (“the seventeenth of August”)


Note that we use the cardinal, not the ordinal (“-th”) numeral in dates, and must include the word
tanggal.



Years
Tahun berapa? What year? Answer:
Tahun seribu tiga ratus enam puluh lima The year 1365





Finally, some useful adverbs that relate to time:


selalu always
sering often
kadang-kadang sometimes
sekarang now
hari ini today


Look at this conversation , and read it careful then , translate in your language :

Karim  Kapan ada waktu, Siti? Saya ingin bertemu lagi.
Siti        Besok ada waktu. Jam 10?
Karim  Maaf, saya punya janji dengan dosen jam 10. Jam 11 bisa?
Siti        Baiklah. Saya tunggu di pojok gedung Fakultas Hukum, ya?
Karim Hari ulang tahun Siti tanggai berapa?
Siti        Tanggal 10 April. Saya lahir tahun 1987.
Karim Jadi nanti berumur 22.
Siti        Ya, Dan Karim ¿
Karim Hari ulang tahun saya tanggal 11 September. Saya lahir tahun 1986.
Siti      Jadi sekarang berumur 23. Hampir sama!
Karim Jam berapa sekarang?
Siti      Sudah hampir jam 12. Hari ini hari Jumat. Orang Islam akan ke mesjid untuk salat
Jumat Selesai jam 1 siang. Lalu mereka pulang.








Bertemu                      to meet                                      maaf                sorry! ,excuse me      
berumur                      to be aged.. . . . years old            orang Islam     Muslim(s)
besok                           tomorrow                                   pojok              comer
hampir                         almost                                        salat                 ritual prayer (five times daily)
hari ulang tahun          birthday                                      tunggu                         to wait
janji                             appointment, date, promise          waktu              time


For those who wish to observe them, there are five times (waktu) for ritual prayer (salat) for Muslims. These times are calculated precisely, and as a result the call to prayer will be broadcast from the mosque loudspeakers at almost the same moment, all over the city. The times vary slightly according to the time of year. On Thursday 22 January 2009 in Jakarta, for example, they were:


I sy a               7.27 p.m.
Su bu h            4.38 a.m.
L o h o r          12.05 p.m.
A s a r             3.28 p.m.
M a g h r ib     6.17 p.m.

Here’s a way to remember the five times: ISLAM.
You can perform the ritual at home or at the local mosque. But Friday midday prayer, as mentioned in the Story, is a communal time, and there will be a sermon (khotbah) as well, given by the leader (imam).

In Indonesian Country ,about Structured Grammar, you will also see  3 special words to perform the place of time, in International Meaning Time we use GMT to put in on time of place, also in Bahasa Indonesia we use local meaning time, and consisted by 3 different time zone , every zone has distance about one hour. and they are :

1.      WIB ( Waktu Indonesia Barat) : west Indonesian meaning time used in Sumatera, Java ,Kalimantan Islands.
2.      WITA (Waktu Indonesia Tengah) : Middle Indonesia meaning time used in Bali, NTT,NTB , Sulawesi Islands
3.      WIT  (Waktu Indonesia Timur )  : East Indonesian Meaning Time used in Papua ,Maluku Islands
So when you see time : 07.00 WIB , It means used in West Indonesian and also has different time with middle zone and east zone.

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