Adjectives in Spanish Language (Basic)

Adjectives are used to modify, or describe, nouns. It is easy to recognize the meanings  of some adjectives.

moderno            modern                                inteligente                         intelligent

An adjective in Spanish must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifes. You have seen examples of this with nationalities (aleman, alemana) and with
possessive adjectives (nuestro, nuestros). Notice how the adjective changes in
these examples.

el chico alto                                       the tall boy                                       (masculine singular)
la chica alta                                       the tall girl                                         (feminine singular)
los chicos altos                                 the tall boys                                     (masculine singular)
las chicas altas                                the tall girls                                        (feminine singular)

Most descriptive adjectives in Spanish end in -o and have four forms: -o, -a, -os, -as.
Notice how the endings of the adjectives often echo the endings of the nouns.

un libro barato                                                 a cheap (inexpensive) book
una casa antigua                                             an old house
unos libros baratos                                        some cheap (inexpensive) books
unas casas antiguas                                      some old houses

Here are some common adjectives ending in -o:

Alto                        tall                                                       gordo                   fat
Antiguo                                old, ancient                                      hermoso              beautiful
amarillo                yellow                                                  largo                     long
atractivo              attractive                                             limpio                  clean
bajo                      short                                                    lindo                     pretty
barato                   cheap                                                 loco                      crazy
blanco                  white                                                    malo                     bad
bonito                   pretty                                                  modern               modern
bueno                   good                                                    negro                    black
caro                      expensive                                           Nuevo                  new
cَmodo              comfortable                              pequeño           small
corto                short                                        rico                 rich; delicious
delgado           thin                                          rojo                  red
delicioso          delicious                                  rubio               blond
divertido           fun                                         simpatico         nice
enfermo           sick, ill                                     sucio               dirty
feo                   ugly                                        timido             shy
frio                   cold                                        viejo                old

Some adjectives are an exception to the rule above in that they dont change when they modify a masculine or feminine noun. These adjectives ending in -e or -a have
only two forms: singular and plural. To make the plural, simply add an -s.

la mujer elegante                                  the elegant woman                               (singular)
las mujeres elegantes                           the elegant women                              (plural)
el niño idealista                                    the idealistic child (m.)                          (singular)
los niños idealistas                              the idealistic children                            (plural)

Here are some common adjectives ending in -e:

Alegre                          happy                         humilde                                    humble
amable                         friendly                        independiente                         independent
efi ciente                      effi cient                      inteligente                                intelligent
elegante                       elegant                        paciente                                   patient
enorme                        enormous, huge           pobre                                     poor
fuerte                           strong                                     triste                                        sad
grande                         big                              verde                                       green

Here are some common adjectives ending in -a. Notice that many of these adjectives are generally abstract concepts applying to people.

egoista                                    selfi sh                                    rosa                                         pink
idealista                       idealistic                       optimista                                 optimistic
hipócrita                       hypocritical                 pesimista                                 pessimistic
materialista                   materialistic                  realista                                                realistic
naranja                         orange (color)               violeta                                     violet (color)

Most adjectives ending in a consonant also have only two forms, singular and plural.
They do not change for masculine and feminine. To make these adjectives plural, simply add -es, unless the adjective ends in a -z, in which case the -z becomes a -c-.

El examen es facil.                                        The test is easy.
Los exلmenes son faciles.                           The tests are easy.
La alumna es feliz.                                        The student is happy.
Las alumnas son felices.                               The students are happy.

Here are some adjectives ending in a consonant:

Azul                  blue                                        gris                             gray
dificil                diffi cult                                   joven                           young
facil                 easy                                        normal                         normal
feliz                  happy                                      popular                       popular

Note that adjectives of nationality, whether they end in a consonant or vowel, actually have four forms.

español                                    españoles                                Spanish (m.)
española                                  españolas                                Spanish (f.)

A few adjectives that end in a consonant actually take on masculine and feminine forms as well as singular and plural. Here are some examples:

encantador                   charming
hablador                      talkative
trabajador                    hardworking

La señora Guzman es encantadora.            Mrs. Guzman is charming.
Mi esposo es muy hablador.                       My husband is very talkative.
Las camareras son muy trabajadoras.         The waitresses are very hardworking.

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