Learning Tenses in Bahasa Indonesia

Ok..My friends, How are you today ?
In previous lesson we have studied about personal pronoun in Bahasa Indonesia, Now. Look at the story below, and translate it . You should get new Vocabularies from wordlist .  you will learn about tenses in Indonesian, I hope you to be happy for learning this language ok..lets begin.

`Sari sudah selesai makan pagi. Sekarang dia sudah siap berangkat ke kampus.
Kemarin dia lupa payungnya. Jadi hari ini Sari tidak akan lupa. Sari sudah tiba di kampus.
Dia akan ikut kuliah. Kuliah akan mulai. Dia masuk ke ruangan, lalu dia balik lagi. “Bodoh aku!” pikirnya. “Ada apa, Sari?” temannya bertanya. Hari ini tidak ada kuliah! Dosennya tidak ada. Beliau sedang pergi. Mahasiswa sedang mengobrol: “Ayo, pulang saja!” katenya.
“Tidak ada gunanya tinggal di kampus.” Tapi Sari ingin ke Fakultas Hukum. “Saya kira bisa ketemu Joel lagi”, pikirnya. Biasanya Joel akan keluar siang...


ayo come on!                                                   lalu then
balik to go back                                                lupa to forget
berangkat to leave, set out                                 mengobrol to chat
bertanya to ask                                                 mulai to begin
bisa to be able; can                                            payung umbrella
bodoh stupid, silly                                             pikirnya she thought
guna use                                                          ruangan room, hall
ingin to want to                                                saja only; just
jadi so                                                             selesai finished
katanya they said                                              siap ready
ketemu to meet                                                 tapi but
kuliah lecture                                                   tiba to arrive
lagi again                                                         tidak not; no

When talking to someone, or when referring to them, we should use the appropriate title in front of their name, and not just the name, so Pak Hasan or Bu Yoto. This means that a title will be found even where Mr or Mrs is not usual in English. A Western male is likely to be addressed with the title Om (from Dutch oont “uncle”), so Om John (using his first name, not his family name). If he is addressed as Pak John, this means that he is becoming integrated into the Indonesian social world.
Similarly, there are quasi-kinship titles for younger people as well, namely Mas “elder brother” or
alternatively Kang; Mbak “elder sister”; and Dik “younger brother or sister”. These can be followed by the person’s name. In general, terms of address are much more frequent in Indonesian than in English, and to use just someone’s name, without a title, would suggest a high degree of intimacy, a big age-gap or a superior-inferior relationship.
To say “Ladies and Gentlemen”, as when beginning a speech, we say Bapak-bapak dan Ibu-ibu
—note the doubling for the plural, and the order, men first! In a formal letter, we could use as pronouns Bapak or Ibu, both with a capital letter, to mean “you

As well as the genuine pronouns set out this post , in Indonesian we find the frequent use of other words (nouns) that take their place and function in exactly the same way as pronouns. It will make your Indonesian more idiomatic if you can use them in the right way.
The nouns concerned are terms for family relationships. The main ones are bapak “father” and ibu “mother”. These can be used to mean “you”, and would replace anda or saudara. They have quite a different “feel”: on the one hand they express respect, because a parent is someone you look up to, and on the other hand they have a certain warmth, because they mean that we are entering a quasi-familial relationship.
Obviously, bapak is used for addressing a mature male, and ibu for a mature female.
Abbreviated forms of bapak and ibu can be used for addressing or calling someone: Pak! Bu! There does not seem to be a real English equivalent for this (not Mr! or Mrs!).
Proper nouns, that is, people’s names, can also serve as pronouns, not only second person ( = you)
instead of kamu, but also first (= I) instead of aku, especially when children are speaking, e.g.
Rini lapar, I am hungry. (Rini speaking)

We have already seen a number of examples of simple verbs. In Indonesian, the verb does not change its form to indicate tense, as English does (e.g. to gain: gains, gained, and so on). As a result, when translating from Indonesian into English the appropriate tense markers have to be supplied. You can use present, past or future tense depending on what is needed.
However, all this does not mean that Indonesian is lacking in precision. We have ways of indicating the tense when it is necessary to be explicit, by using special words which are placed directly in front of the verb concerned, as follows:

The Past
The word which indicates the past, that is, that something happened or has been done, is sudah

Note that this expresses both the English “simple past” (-ed) and the “perfect” tense (has -ed). And
sometimes the translation “already” fits well too. These words can also be used in front of certain adjectives, meaning that the condition indicated has been reached, even if an English present is used in translation,
e.g. Sudah tua he is old (i.e. is already old or has reached this state). Another word that can be used in the same way here is telah.

The Present
This is like the “default” setting of the verb, referring to something happening now or something thathappens regularly. However, we do have a word that can be inserted to suggest that we are “in the midst   o f’ or “in the process o f’ doing something, namely sedang”.
So we can contrast makan “eats” with sedang makan “is in the process of eating”. But sedang will only be put in when it really is necessary to stress this “continuous” meaning. Another word that can be used in the same way here is tengah.

The Future
To express the future, “will” or “is going to”, we have the word akan This is placed in front of its verb, just like the cases above. Another word with a similar meaning mau, “going to, on the point o f’; this has another common meaning, “want to”.
Finally, please note that these words cannot be combined with each other to make other tenses, such as the English future perfect (“will have”), and there is no special form for the conditional (“would”).

Use of ada
As will be seen in the story, this important word has a range of meanings: “to be there; exist”; “to be there, to be present”; “to be there, to have”. An idiomatic use is Ada apa? meaning “What’s up?” (What’s wrong, what’s the matter?).

Another use of -nya
Apart from the possessive use already noted, this suffix also has a “demonstrative” use, best translated with “the,” that is, making a noun definite. It can also be found idiomatically, attached to an adjective forming a word with adverbial meaning, as in e.g.: Biasanya usually
Sayangnya unfortunately

Verbs with ber-
As well as simple verbs, we will meet some verbs that feature a prefix ber-; examples above are berangkat “to set out”, and bertanya “to ask”. Verbs of this type are always intransitive. We will have more to say them in the next lesson or post.