Verbs with 'me-i' affixation in Learning Indonesian

We still learning Indonesian about affixation , as the past lesson in suffix and prefix in Bahasa Indonesia , this lesson is not far from the last lesson .   many verbs which take a me- prefix (or a di- prefix) can also take the -i suffix.vThe function of the -i suffix, like the -kan suffix, is to create transitive verbs . ( ) This means that, in their active form (the me-i form) , they will usually be  directly followed by the object.

The meanings associated with the -i suffix are numerous and somewhat different from those associated with the -kan suffix. Here we will learn the most common meanings associated with the -i suffix. The addition of the -i suffix implies a very close relationship between the verb
and the object. However, generally speaking, the -kan suffix causes the object to move or change in some way (for example, membesarkan = to enlarge; membersihkan =to clean). On the other hand, the use of the -i suffix does not usually cause the object to move or change, although commonly the action implies some effect upon the object. Look at the following examples using the stem word duduk.


1 duduk                                               to sit
Marilah kita duduk di sini

2 mendudukkan                                    to cause somebody or something to sit somewhere, to seat
somebody or something somewhere
lbu mendudukkan bayinya di kursi kecil.

3 menduduki                             to sit on or in something, to occupy
Dari tahun 1942 sampai 1945 tentara Jepang menduduki
kepulauan Indonesia.
Here are some more examples, this time using the stem word masuk.

Locative verbs with suffix '-i'

One of the most common uses of the -i suffix is to indicate that the object (which follows the verb) is actually the location where the action takes place. If the object is a person, the -i suffix indicates that the object is the person towards whom the action is directed.

1 Ayah sedang menduduki kursi besar.
a tau
Ayah sedang duduk di kursi besar.

2 Nicky sedang memasuki toko CD.
a tau
Nicky sedang masuk ke dalam toko CD.

Verbs with suffix '-i' formed from
 intransitive verb stem words

Many of the -i verbs are formed from stem words which are intransitive verbs. We have already
seen examples of this with menduduki (from the intransitive verb duduk) and memasuki (from the intransitive verb masuk).Study these further examples of -i verbs formed from intransitive verb stem words.


1,Nicky sangat menyukai musik rap.
2 Tadi malam Nicky dan Ari menghadiri konser pop.
3 Di konser itu mereka menemui seorang penyanyi yang terkenal.
4 Setiap hari, waktu pulang dari sekolah, Nicky melewati rumah Ari
5 Ari dengan keluarganya meninggali rumah besar di Jalan Kartini.

Verbs with suffix '-i' formed from noun stem words

There are quite a lot of -i verbs which are formed from stem words which are nouns. The most common meaning associated with this group of verbs is 'to apply whatever is mentioned in the stem word to the object'. For example, mengobati pasien would mean 'to apply or administer medicine to the patient'; that is, 'to treat with medicine'.

Study these examples of -i verbs formed from noun stem words.


1 Juru rawat itu sedang mengobati pasiennya.
2 Petani itu harus mengairi sawahnya.
3 Nicky akan menandatangani surat itu.
4 Nicky sangat menghargai nasihat pelayan di toko CD itu.
5 Kita seharusnya menghormati orang tua kita.

Verbs with suffix '-i' formed from adiective stem words

A relatively small number of adjectives can also be used to create me-i verbs. In some of these cases , the stem word indicates a position; for example, dekat (close), jauh (far) , atas (above) and damping (dose/intimate). Where these locative adjectives are used as the stem words of me-i verbs , the meaning attached to the me-i verb is 'to assume the distance indicated in the stem word'.


mendekati                   to approach, to move closer to the object
menjauhi                     to avoid, to move further away from the object
mengatasi                   to overcome, to get on top of the object (probably
the object is a problem of some kind)
mendampingi              to accompany, to be in close attendance

Study these sentences, which contain me-i verbs formed from locative adjective stem words.

1 Ari menjauhi gurunya karena belum mengerjakan PRnya.
2 Kita harus bekerja-sama untuk mengatasi soal itu.
3 Nicky sering mendampingi Ari ke konser musik.
4 Melati mendekati gurunya untuk minta nasihatnya.

With most other me-i verbs formed from adjective stem words, the resulting verb usually means that something (the characteristic of the stem word) is applied to the object. For example, from kotor (dirty) we get mengotori (to make something dirty) and from terang (clear) we get menerangi (to illuminate or to enlighten).


1 Gong terbuat dari perunggu, tetapi untuk membuat sebuah gong seorang
pekerja harus memanasi perunggu itu.
2 Guru biasanya memarahi Ari kalau PR Ari tidak dikerjakannya.

1.     Sometimes the difference in meaning between the me-i form of a verb and the
me-kan form of the same stem word can be difficult, if not impossible, to detect.
Th is seems to be particularly so with verbs formed from adjective stem words.
Clearly, for example, there is little if any difference between memanaskan (meaning
to cause something to become hotter) and memanasi (to apply heat to something).

2.     A few adjective stem words are only ever used with memper-i affixation. For example:
Memperbarui               to renew
Setiap tahun ayah Nicky harus memperbarui visanya di kantor imigrasi.
 memperbaiki              to repair
 Pak Danu pandai sekali memperbaiki alat musik yang rusak.


Mendudukkan            to seat somebody!                     Menghormati                        to respect
something somewhere                menjauhi                    to avoid
menduduki                  to sit in / to occupy                   mengatasi                  to overcome
memasukkan              to place something                    mendampingi            to accompany
inside something else                
mendekatkan           to move something closer           memasuki                   to enter 
nasihat                       advice                                      menyukai              to like something
menerangi                to illuminate/ to                        menghadiri             to attend enlighten
menemui                     to meet somebody                     memanasi             to apply heat to
melewati                     to pass over/pass by something
meninggali                  to live in/ inhabit                       memanaskan              to heat
meniduri                     to sleep on something                perunggu        bronze (alloy metal)
mengobati                  to treat with medicine                memperbarui to renew
mengairi                     to water/ irrigate                      memperbaiki              to repair
menandatangani        to sign

There are many groups of me-i and the meanings associated with all of these grop of verbs are different . This section has not covered all of those group or all of the possible meanings. What we have learnt here are most common meanings associated with the me-i affixation . It’s importand for you to remember at this stage that all me-i verbs are transitive (that is, they must be followed by an object ) and that many of them are locative verbs. This means that the object (which follows the verb) is actualy the location where the action takes place-or, if the object is a person, it is the person toward the action .

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